Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Spy World has an Electronic surveillance detection equipment that has advanced features, for a statistical, logical approach for finding spy cameras. Spy Word is located in Miami Beach Coral Gables, Florida. Contact us in Miami Beach Coral Gables for professional advice and to acquire spy cameras and frequency signal electronic detector sweeper. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Surveillance (/sərˈveɪ.əns/ or /sərˈveɪləns/) is the monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting them and by the implementation of an electronic detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. This can include an observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment (such as CCTV cameras), or interception of electronically transmitted information (such as Internet traffic or phone calls); and it can include simple, no- or relatively low-technology methods such as human intelligence agents and a postal interception. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral. The word surveillance comes from a French phrase for “watching over” (sur means “from above” and veiller means “to watch”) and is in contrast to more recent developments such as sousveillance.

Surveillance is used by governments for intelligence gathering, the prevention of crime, the protection of a process, person, group or object, or the investigation of crime. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. It is also used by criminal organizations to plan and commit crimes such as robbery and kidnapping, by businesses to gather intelligence, and by private investigators.

Surveillance is often a violation of privacy and is opposed by various civil liberties groups and activists. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Liberal democracies have laws which restrict domestic government and private use of surveillance, usually limiting it to circumstances where public safety is at risk. Authoritarian government seldom have any domestic restrictions, and international espionage is common among all types of countries.

The value of employing electronic surveillance in the investigation of some forms of serious crime, in particularly organized crime, is unquestionable. It allows the gathering of information unattainable through other means. Some countries have utilized surreptitious electronic surveillance for nearly a century. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. For others, it is a more recent phenomenon, and for some, it is not yet utilized at all.

Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

The use by law enforcement of electronic surveillance should not be an investigative tool of first resort, instead, its use should be considered when other less intrusive means have proven ineffective or when there is no reasonable alternative to obtaining crucial information or evidence. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Even when electronic surveillance is appropriate, it will generally need to be used in conjunction with other investigation methods in order to be most effective.

For those jurisdictions without any regulation, or with legislation which is lacking in some respect, the challenge is to develop a balanced system for the use of electronic evidence gathering. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. The balance which needs to be struck is that between the effective use of electronic evidence gathering and the protection of citizens’ rights. This includes balancing the cost of utilizing these methods against the ultimate public benefit gained from a conviction. These considerations should be weighed carefully by legislators, prosecutors, law enforcement and the like. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

It should also be noted that in some countries the existence of a federal system of governance means that electronic surveillance can be regulated at both a local and at a national level. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Federal law will often apply where the investigation is a crime that crosses borders; however, organized crime is of course also investigated by local law enforcement. It is not possible for this document to comprehensively consider regulation of individual states, regions or provinces within countries, although their mention will occur where valuable examples arise. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

The term “electronic surveillance” covers an array of capabilities and practices. To better understand what is meant by electronic surveillance, it is useful to break it down into parts. Surveillance has previously been defined on the basis of covert/overt distinctions or determined according to the level of contact with the target, whether remote or direct. These distinctions might, arguably, create a false dichotomy, particularly in the context of modern surveillance technologies, where overt/covert lines are not as easy to draw. Thus, a framework based on function is perhaps more useful. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. The table below provides some examples. Although this too is flawed in that modern surveillance technologies will often have multiple capabilities (see below discussion at section 5.2 on regulating technologies with multiple capabilities). Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

In December 2007 the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) commenced the first of a series of meetings with expert representatives from law enforcement and prosecutorial and judicial authorities of Member States. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. The first informal expert group meeting on electronic evidence gathering was held from 3-5 December 2007 at the Vienna International Centre. A second regional expert group meeting for Southeast Asian countries was held 17-18 March 2009 at the Digital Forensic Centre in Seoul. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. The meetings each brought together a small group of law enforcement officials and legal experts from different countries and regions. It is anticipated that more regular expert group meetings are to follow.

The initial goal of these meetings was to utilize participants’ expertise and experiences to develop a training manual for electronic surveillance. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. However, due to the complexity of this issue, it was decided that as a first step it would be useful to draft a comparative study of surveillance regulation and practices, drawing primarily upon the expert group meetings but also by completing more general research in the area. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. The document will broadly outline the use of and challenges faced by law enforcement and investigative authorities in a range of jurisdictions in the collection, use and storage of electronic evidence through surveillance.

Countries with greater resources for policing and investigative techniques tend to have a longer history of both regulation and use of special investigative techniques. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. This will be reflected somewhat in the research; however, this does not represent any kind of bias, but merely an unavoidable limitation reflective of modern and historical economic realities. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Despite these limitations, the preparation of this document involved broad research across a range of regions, despite a scarcity of information in some. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Thus a variety of jurisdictions and approaches are considered. Further national examples will be added and expanded upon as they are provided by participants in ongoing regional expert group meetings.

In this document, UNODC is concerned only with electronic surveillance for the investigations of serious crime. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Although, it is acknowledged that electronic evidence gathering techniques may be appropriate for use in the investigation of less serious offenses.

The domestic regulation of electronic surveillance does not occur in a vacuum. Regional and international considerations are also relevant, including domestic obligations under international instruments. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. The right which is most frequently referred to in this context and is generally most juxtaposed against the use of surveillance is the right to privacy. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. The right to protection from arbitrary invasion of privacy is a fundamental human right, laid down in article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). The ICCPR has 160 state parties and thus creates obligations which stretch across most of the world.

Types of electronic surveillance. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Computer:

The vast majority of computer surveillance involves the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet. In the United States for example, under the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act, all phone calls and broadband Internet traffic (emails, web traffic, instant messaging, etc.) are required to be available for unimpeded real-time monitoring by Federal law enforcement agencies.

There is far too much data on the Internet for human investigators to manually search through all of it. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. So automated Internet surveillance computers sift through the vast amount of intercepted Internet traffic and identify and report to human investigators traffic considered interesting by using certain “trigger” words or phrases, visiting certain types of websites, or communicating via email or chat with suspicious individuals or groups.

Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Billions of dollars per year are spent, by agencies such as the Information Awareness Office, NSA, and the FBI, to develop, purchase, implement, and operate systems such as Carnivore, NarusInsight, and ECHELON to intercept and analyze all of this data, and extract only the information which is useful to law enforcement and intelligence agencies.

Computers can be a surveillance target because of the personal data stored on them. If someone is able to install software, such as the FBI’s Magic Lantern and CIPAV, on a computer system, they can easily gain unauthorized access to this data. Such software could be installed physically or remotely. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Another form of computer surveillance, known as van Eck phreaking, involves reading electromagnetic emanations from computing devices in order to extract data from them at distances of hundreds of meters. The NSA runs a database known as “Pinwale”, which stores and indexes large numbers of emails of both American citizens and foreigners.

Telephones. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

The official and unofficial tapping of telephone lines are widespread. In the United States, for instance, the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) requires that all telephone and VoIP communications be available for real-time wiretapping by Federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Two major telecommunications companies in the U.S., AT&T Inc., and Verizon, have contracts with the FBI, requiring them to keep their phone call records easily searchable and accessible for Federal agencies, in return for $1.8 million per year. Between 2003 and 2005, the FBI sent out more than 140,000 “National Security Letters” ordering phone companies to hand over information about their customers’ calling and Internet histories. About half of these letters requested information on U.S. citizens.

Human agents are not required to monitor most calls. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Speech-to-text software creates machine-readable text from intercepted audio, which is then processed by automated call-analysis programs, such as those developed by agencies such as the Information Awareness Office, or companies such as Verint, and Narus, which search for certain words or phrases, to decide whether to dedicate a human agent to the call. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Law enforcement and intelligence services in the United Kingdom and the United States possess the technology to activate the microphones in cell phones remotely, by accessing phones’ diagnostic or maintenance features in order to listen to conversations that take place near the person who holds the phone. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect location data. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. The geographical location of a mobile phone (and thus the person carrying it) can be determined easily even when the phone is not being used, using a technique known as multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. The legality of such techniques has been questioned in the United States, in particular, whether a court warrant is required. Records for one carrier alone (Sprint), showed that in a given year federal law enforcement agencies requested customer location data 8 million times.

Cameras. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Surveillance cameras are video cameras used for the purpose of observing an area. They are often connected to a recording device or IP network and may be watched by a security guard or law enforcement officer. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Cameras and recording equipment used to be relatively expensive and required human personnel to monitor camera footage, but analysis of footage has been made easier by automated software that organizes digital video footage into a searchable database, and by video analysis software (such as VIRAT and HumanID). Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. The amount of footage is also drastically reduced by motion sensors which only record when motion is detected. With cheaper production techniques, surveillance cameras are simple and inexpensive enough to be used in home security systems, and for everyday surveillance.

In the United States, the Department of Homeland Security awards billions of dollars per year in Homeland Security grants for local, state, and federal agencies to install modern video surveillance equipment. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. For example, the city of Chicago, Illinois, recently used a $5.1 million Homeland Security grant to install an additional 250 surveillance cameras and connect them to a centralized monitoring center, along with its preexisting network of over 2000 cameras, in a program known as Operation Virtual Shield. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Speaking in 2009, Chicago Mayor Richard Daley announced that Chicago would have a surveillance camera on every street corner by the year 2016.

In the United Kingdom, the vast majority of video surveillance cameras are not operated by government bodies, but by private individuals or companies, especially to monitor the interiors of shops and businesses. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. According to 2011 Freedom of Information Act requests, the total number of local government operated CCTV cameras was around 52,000 over the entirety of the UK. The prevalence of video surveillance in the UK is often overstated due to unreliable estimates being requoted; for example one report in 2002 extrapolated from a very small sample to estimate the number of cameras in the UK at 4.2 million (of which 500,000 in Greater London). Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. More reliable estimates put the number of private and local government-operated cameras in the United Kingdom at around 1.85 million in 2011.

Social network analysis. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

One common form of surveillance is to create maps of social networks based on data from social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter as well as from traffic analysis information from phone call records such as those in the NSA call database, and others. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. These social network “maps” are then data mined to extract useful information such as personal interests, friendships & affiliations, wants, beliefs, thoughts, and activities.

Many U.S. government agencies such as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the National Security Agency (NSA), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are investing heavily in research involving social network analysis. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. The intelligence community believes that the biggest threat to U.S. power comes from decentralized, leaderless, geographically dispersed groups of terrorists, subversives, extremists, and dissidents. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. These types of threats are most easily countered by finding important nodes in the network and removing them. To do this requires a detailed map of the network.

B Biometric surveillance is a technology that measures and analyzes human physical and/or behavioral characteristics for authentication, identification, or screening purposes. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Examples of physical characteristics include fingerprints, DNA, and facial patterns. Examples of mostly behavioral characteristics include gait (a person’s manner of walking) or voice.

Facial recognition is the use of the unique configuration of a person’s facial features to accurately identify them, usually from surveillance video. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables. Both the Department of Homeland Security and DARPA are heavily funding research into facial recognition systems. The Information Processing Technology Office ran a program known as Human Identification at a Distance which developed technologies that are capable of identifying a person at up to 500 ft by their facial features. Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

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Another form of behavioral biometrics, based on affective computing, involves computers recognizing a person’s emotional state based on an analysis of their facial expressions, how fast they are talking, the tone and pitch of their voice, their posture, and other behavioral traits. This might be used for instance to see if a person’s behavior is suspect (looking around furtively, “tense” or “angry” facial expressions, waving arms, etc.). Electronic surveillance detection equipment Miami Beach Coral Gables.

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