GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

 GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables

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GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables

GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based radio navigation system which is managed by the Government of the United States by the U.S. Air Force (USAF), the system operator. GPS was originally developed as a military force enhancement system and will continue to play this role. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

However, GPS has also demonstrated a significant potential to benefit the civil community in an increasingly large variety of applications. In an effort to make this beneficial service available to the greatest number of users while ensuring that the national security interests of the United States are observed, two GPS services are provided. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. The Precise Positioning Service (PPS) is available primarily to the military of the United States and its allies for users properly equipped with PPS receivers. The Standard Positioning Service (SPS) is designed to provide a less accurate positioning capability than PPS for civil and all other users throughout the world.

Purpose. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

The GPS SPS Signal Specification defines the service to be provided by GPS to the civil community. This document is written to satisfy the following four objectives:

1) Specify GPS SPS ranging signal characteristics. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

2) Specify SPS performance, given a receiver designed in accordance with this Signal Specification. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

3) Standardize SPS performance parameter definitions and measurement methodologies. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

4) Define SPS performance characteristics. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

The Signal Specification consists of this document and three Annexes. This document specifies GPS SPS signal characteristics and the minimum requirements for receiving and using the SPS ranging signal. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. The Annexes provide technical data that quantifies SPS performance. Provided below is a definition of each Annex’s purpose:

  • Annex A: SPS Performance Specification. This Annex specifies GPS SPS performance in terms of minimum performance standards, and conditions and constraints associated with the provision of the service. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.
  • Annex B: SPS Performance Characteristics. This Annex defines GPS SPS performance parameters and their characteristics as a function of time, user location, system design and changing operational conditions. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.
  • Annex C: Means of Measuring GPS Performance. This Annex defines the specific measurement processes which a user must apply to evaluate GPS performance, in order to obtain results which are consistent with the parameter definitions and performance standards established in this Signal Specification. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Scope. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gabless

GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables

This Signal Specification defines SPS ranging signal characteristics and minimum usage conditions. The Annexes establish the SPS performance which a minimally equipped SPS user can expect to experience anywhere on or near the surface of the Earth and the means to evaluate that performance. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

SPS signal and performance specifications are independent of how the user applies the basic positioning and timing services provided. Performance specifications do not take into consideration the measurement noise or reliability attributes of the SPS receiver or possible signal interference. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

This Signal Specification and the Annexes establish new definitions and relationships between traditional performance parameters such as coverage, service availability, service reliability and accuracy. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. GPS performance specifications have previously been made to conform to definitions which apply to fixed terrestrial positioning systems. The new definitions are tailored to better represent the performance attributes of a space-based positioning system. Refer to Annex B for a more comprehensive discussion of GPS performance parameter definitions and relationships. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Due to the nature of the system design and its operation, individual GPS satellite ranging measurements will not necessarily exhibit unchanging SPS ranging error statistics. Furthermore, the Department of Defense (DOD) does not guarantee that GPS ranging or positioning error statistics will remain stationary, or that individual satellite ranging error statistics will be consistent throughout the constellation. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

The DOD will base its on-going measurement and assessment of all specified aspects of SPS performance on data gathered from Control Segment (CS) monitor stations. If the minimum performance standards are met at each of the monitor stations, the DOD will assume that standards are being met on a global basis. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. Geographic variations in performance will be taken into consideration in the assessment process.

Policy Definition of the Standard Positioning Service. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

The United States Government defines the GPS Standard Positioning Service as follows:

SPS is a positioning and timing service and is provided on the GPS L1 frequency. The GPS L1 frequency, transmitted by all GPS satellites, contains a coarse acquisition (C/A) code and a navigation data message. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. The GPS L1 frequency also contains a precision (P) code that is reserved for military use and is not a part of the SPS. The P code can be altered without notice and will not normally be available to users that do not have valid cryptographic keys. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

GPS satellites also transmit a second ranging signal known as L2. This signal is not a part of the SPS, although many civil receivers have incorporated technologies into their design that enables them to use L2 to support two-frequency corrections without recourse to code tracking logic. SPS performance standards are not predicated upon the use of L2. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

General Terms and Definitions. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

The terms and definitions discussed below are used throughout the Signal Specification. An understanding of these terms and definitions is a necessary prerequisite to a full understanding of the Signal Specification. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Standard Positioning Service (SPS). Three-dimensional position and time determination capability provided to a user equipped with a minimum capability GPS SPS receiver in accordance with GPS national policy and the performance specifications established in this Signal Specification. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

 Minimum SPS Receiver Capabilities. The minimum signal reception and processing capabilities which must be designed into an SPS receiver in order to experience performance consistent with the SPS performance standards. Minimum SPS receiver capabilities are identified later. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Selective Availability. Protection technique employed by the DOD to deny full system accuracy to unauthorized users. Block I and Block II Satellites. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. The Block I is a GPS concept validation satellite; it does not have all of the design features and capabilities of the production model GPS satellite, the Block II.

The FOC 24 satellite constellation is defined to consist entirely of Block II/IIA satellites. For the purposes of this Signal Specification, the Block II satellite and a slightly modified version of the Block II known as the Block IIA provide an identical service. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. Operational Satellite. A GPS satellite which is capable of, but may or may not be, transmitting a usable ranging signal.

For the purposes of this Signal Specification, any satellite contained within the transmitted navigation message almanac is considered to be an operational satellite. SPS Signal, or SPS Ranging Signal. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. An electromagnetic signal originating from an operational satellite. The SPS ranging signal consists of a Pseudo Random Noise (PRN) Coarse/Acquisition (C/A) code, a timing reference and sufficient data to support the position solution generation process. A full definition of the GPS SPS signal is provided in Section 2. Usable SPS Ranging Signal. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. An SPS ranging signal which can be received, processed and used in a position solution by a receiver with minimum SPS receiver capabilities.

SPS Ranging Signal Measurement. The difference between the ranging signal time of reception (as defined by the receiver’s clock) and the time of transmission contained within the satellite’s navigation data (as defined by the satellite’s clock) multiplied by the speed of light. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. Also known as the pseudo range. Geometric Range. The difference between the estimated locations of a GPS satellite and an SPS receiver. Navigation Message. Message structure designed to carry navigation data. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

This structure is defined in later. Navigation Data. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. Data provided to the SPS receiver via each satellite’s ranging signal, containing the ranging signal time of transmission, the transmitting satellite’s orbital elements, an almanac containing abbreviated orbital element information to support satellite selection, ranging measurement correction information, and status flags.

Position Solution. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

The use of ranging signal measurements and navigation data from at least four satellites to solve for three position coordinates and a time offset. Dilution of Precision (DOP). GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. The magnifying effect on GPS position error induced by mapping GPS ranging errors into position through the position solution.

The DOP may be represented in any user local coordinate desired. Examples are HDOP for local horizontal, VDOP for local vertical, PDOP for all three coordinates, and TDOP for a time. SPS Performance Standard. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. A quantifiable minimum level for a specified aspect of GPS SPS performance. SPS performance standards are defined in Annex A to this Signal Specification. SPS Performance Envelope. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

The range of variation in specified aspects of SPS performance. Expected SPS performance characteristics are defined in Annex B to this Signal Specification. Service Disruption. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. A condition over a time interval during which one or more SPS performance standards are not supported, but the civil community was warned in advance. Major Service Failure. A condition over a time interval during which one or more SPS performance standards are not met and the civil community was not warned in advance. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Performance Parameter Definitions The definitions provided below establish the basis for correct interpretation of the GPS SPS performance standards. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. As was stated in Section 1.2, the GPS performance parameters contained in this Signal Specification are defined differently than other radio navigation systems in the Federal Radionavigation Plan.

 For a more comprehensive treatment of these definitions and their implications on system use. Coverage. The percentage of time over a specified time interval that a sufficient number of satellites are above a specified mask angle and provide an acceptable position solution geometry at any point on or near the Earth. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. For the purposes of this Signal Specification, the term “near the Earth” means on or within approximately 200 kilometers of the Earth’s surface.

Service Availability. Given coverage, the percentage of time over a specified time interval that a sufficient number of satellites are transmitting a usable ranging signal within view of any point on or near the Earth. Service Reliability. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. Given service availability, the percentage of time over a specified time interval that the instantaneous predictable horizontal error is maintained within a specified reliability threshold at any point on or near the Earth.

Note that service reliability does not take into consideration the reliability characteristics of the SPS receiver or possible signal interference. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. Service reliability may be used to measure the total number of major failure hours experienced by the satellite constellation over a specified time interval. Positioning Accuracy. Given reliable service, the percentage of time over a specified time interval that the difference between the measured and expected user position or time is within a specified tolerance at any point on or near the Earth. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

This general accuracy definition is further refined through the most specific definitions of four different aspects of positioning accuracy:

  • Predictable Accuracy. Given reliable service, the percentage of time over a specified time interval that the difference between a position measurement and a surveyed benchmark is within a specified tolerance at any point on or near the Earth. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.
  • Repeatable Accuracy. Given reliable service, the percentage of time over a specified time interval that the difference between a position measurement taken at one time and a position measurement is taken at another time at the same location is within a specified tolerance at any point on or near the Earth. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.
  • Relative Accuracy. Given reliable service, the percentage of time over a specified time interval that the difference between two receivers’ position estimates taken at the same time is within a specified tolerance at any point on or near the Earth. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.
  • Time Transfer Accuracy. Given reliable service, the percentage of time over a specified time interval that the difference between a Universal Coordinated Time (commonly referred to as UTC) time estimate from the position solution and UTC as it is managed by the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is within a specified tolerance. Range Domain Accuracy. Range domain accuracy deals with the performance of each satellite’s SPS ranging signal. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Range domain accuracy is defined in terms of three different aspects:

  • Range Error. Given reliable service, the percentage of time over a specified time interval that the difference between an SPS ranging signal measurement and the “true” range between the satellite and an SPS user is within a specified tolerance at any point on or near the Earth. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.
  • Range Rate Error. Given reliable service, the percentage of time over a specified time interval that the instantaneous rate-of-change of range error is within a specified tolerance at any point on or near the Earth. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.
  • Range Acceleration Error. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. Given reliable service, the percentage of time over a specified time interval that the instantaneous rate-of-change of range rate error is within a specified tolerance at any point on or near the Earth.

Global Positioning System Overview Sufficient information is provided below to promote a common understanding of the minimum GPS baseline configuration. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. The GPS baseline system is comprised of two segments, whose purpose is to provide a reliable and continuous positioning and timing service to the GPS user community. These two segments are known as the Space Segment and the Control Segment.

The GPS Space Segment The GPS Block II/IIA satellite constellation normally consists of 24 operational satellites. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. The Block II satellite and a slightly modified version, the Block IIA satellite, will be the mainstays of the constellation over the next decade. From a civil user’s perspective, the Block II and Block IIA satellites provide an identical service. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

Each satellite generates a navigation message based upon data periodically uploaded from the Control Segment and adds the message to a 1.023 MHz Pseudo Random Noise (PRN) Coarse/Acquisition (C/A) code sequence. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. The satellite modulates the resulting code sequence onto a 1575.42 MHz L-band carrier to create a spread spectrum ranging signal, which it then broadcasts to the user community.

This broadcast is referred to in this Signal Specification as the SPS ranging signal. Each C/A code is unique and provides the mechanism to identify each satellite in the constellation. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. A block diagram illustrating the satellite’s SPS ranging signal generation process is provided in Figure 1-1. The GPS satellite also transmits a second ranging signal known as L2, that supports PPS user two-frequency corrections. L2, like L1, is a spread spectrum signal and is transmitted at 1227.6 Mhz.

The Block II satellite is designed to provide reliable service over a 7.5-year design life through a combination of space qualified components, multiple redundancies for critical subsystems, and internal diagnostic logic. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. The Block II satellite design requires minimal interaction with the ground and allows all but a few maintenance activities to be conducted without interruption to the ranging signal broadcast. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. Periodic uploads of data to support navigation message generation are designed to cause no disruption to the SPS ranging signal.

The GPS Control Segment The GPS Control Segment (CS) is comprised of three major components: a Master Control Station (MCS), ground antennas, and monitor stations. An overview of the CS is provided in Figure 1-2. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. The MCS is located at Falcon Air Force Base, Colorado, and is the central control node for the GPS satellite constellation. Operations are maintained 24 hours a day, seven days a week throughout each year. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables. The MCS is responsible for all aspects of constellation command and control, to include:

  • Routine satellite bus and payload status monitoring. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.
  • Satellite maintenance and anomaly resolution. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.
  • Monitoring and management of SPS performance in support of all performance standards. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.
  • Navigation data upload operations as required to sustain performance in accordance with accuracy performance standards. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.
  • Prompt detection and response to service failures. GPS Signal Detector Miami Beach Coral Gables.

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