Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Data pushers Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Data pusher is the most common type of GPS tracking unit, used for asset trackingpersonal tracking and Vehicle tracking system. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Also known as a GPS beacon, this kind of device pushes (i.e. “sends”) the position of the device as well as other information like speed or altitude at regular intervals, to a determined server, that can store and instantly analyze the data. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

GPS navigation device and a mobile phone sit side-by-side in the same box, powered by the same battery. At regular intervals, the phone sends a text message via SMS or GPRS, containing the data from the GPS receiver. Newer GPS-integrated smartphones running GPS tracking software can turn the phone into a data pusher (or logger) device; as of 2009 open source and proprietary applications are available for common Java ME enabled phones, iPhoneAndroid, Windows Mobile, and Symbian. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Most 21st-century GPS trackers provide data “push” technology, enabling sophisticated GPS tracking in business environments, specifically organizations that employ a mobile workforce, such as a commercial fleet. Typical GPS tracking systems used in commercial fleet management have two core parts: location hardware (or tracking device) and tracking software. This combination is often referred to as an Automatic Vehicle Location system. The tracking device is most often hardwire installed in the vehicle; connected to the CAN-busIgnition system switch, battery. It allows collection of extra data, which later gets transferred to the GPS tracking server, where it is available for viewing, in most cases via a website accessed over the internet, where fleet activity can be viewed live or historically using digital maps and reports. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

GPS tracking systems used in commercial fleets are often configured to transmit location and telemetry input data at a set update rate or when an event (door open/close, auxiliary equipment on/off,  border cross) triggers the unit to transmit data. Live GPS Tracking used in commercial fleets, generally refers to systems which update regularly at 1 minute, 2 minute or 5 minute intervals, whilst the ignition status is on. Some tracking systems combine timed updates with heading change triggered updates. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

GPS tracking solutions are recently being used in mainstream commercial auto insurance these are sometimes called Telematics 2.0. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

The applications of trackers of this kind include:

PERSONAL GPS Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Law enforcement. An arrested suspect out on bail may have to wear a GPS tracker, usually an ankle monitor, as a bail condition. GPS tracking may also be ordered for persons subject to a restraining order. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Race control. In some sports, such as gliding, participants are required to carry a tracker. In particular this allows race officials to know if the participants are cheating, taking unexpected shortcuts, and how far apart they are. This use was illustrated in the movie Rat Race. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

  • Espionage/surveillance. A tracker on a person or vehicle allows movements to be tracked. This application is used by private investigators
  • These devices are also used by some parents to track their children. Some devices can send text alerts to the parents for every unexpected place visited by the child.

GPS personal tracking devices are used in the care of the elderly and vulnerable. Devices allow users to call for assistance and optionally allow designated carers to locate the user’s position, typically within 5 to 10 metres. Their use helps promote independent living and social inclusion for the elderly. Devices often incorporate either 1-way or 2-way voice communication. Some devices also allow the user to call several phone numbers using pre-programmed speed dial buttons. Trials using GPS personal tracking devices are also underway in several countries for use with early stage dementia. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Some Internet Web 2.0 pioneers have created their own personal web pages that show their position constantly, and in real time, on a map within their website. These usually use data push from a GPS enabled cell phone or a personal GPS tracker. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

  • Sports: the movements of a rambler, cyclist, etc., can be tracked. Statistics such as instantaneous and average speed, and distance traveled, are logged
  • Adventure sports: GPS tracking devices such as the SPOT Satellite Messengerare available that allow the position of a person to be tracked. In particular this allows rescue personnel to locate the carrier. These devices allow the carrier to send messages, even when out of cellular telephone range.]

Monitoring employees. GPS-handled tracking devices with built-in cellphone are used to monitor employees by various companies, specially those engaged in field work. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Asset tracking Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

  • Solar Powered. The advantage of some solar powered units is that they have much more power over their lifetime than battery powered units. This gives them the advantage to report their position and status much more often than battery units which need to conserve their energy to extend their life. Some wireless solar powered units, such as the Rail Ridercan report more than 20,000 times per year and work indefinitely on solar power eliminating the need to change batteries.
  • Animal control. When put on a wildlife animal (e.g. in a collar), it allows scientists to study its activities and migration patterns. Vaginal implant transmitters mark the location where pregnant females give birth. Animal tracking collarsmay also be put on domestic animals, to locate them in case they get lost.

Aircraft trackers Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Aircraft can be tracked either by ADS-B (primarily airliners), or by FLARM data packets picked up by a network of ground stations (primarily used by General Aviation aircraft, gliders and UAVs), both of which are data pushers. ADS-B is to be superseded by ADS-C, a data puller. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral GablesData pullers

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

GPS data pullers are also known as GPS transponders. Unlike data pushers that send the position of the devices at regular intervals (push technology), these devices are always on, and can be queried as often as required (pull technology). This technology is not in widespread use, but an example of this kind of device is a computer connected to the Internet and running gpsd. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

These can often be used in the case where the location of the tracker will only need to be known occasionally e.g. placed in property that may be stolen, or that does not have constant source of energy to send data on a regular basis, like freights or containers. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

A GPS logger simply logs the position of the device at regular intervals in its internal memory. Modern GPS loggers have either a memory card slot, or internal flash memory card and a USB port. Some act as a USB flash drive. This allows downloading of the track log data for further analysis in a computer. The track list or point of interest list may be in GPXKMLNMEA or other format.

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Most digital cameras save the time a photo was taken. Provided the camera clock was reasonably accurate or used GPS as its time source, this time can be correlated with GPS log data, to provide an accurate location. This can be added to the Exif metadata in the picture file. Cameras with GPS receiver built in can directly produce such a geotagged photograph.

In some private investigation cases, data loggers are used to keep track of a target vehicle. The PI need not follow the target so closely, and always has a backup source of data. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Data pushers Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Data pusher is the most common type of GPS tracking unit, used for asset trackingpersonal tracking and Vehicle tracking system. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Also known as a GPS beacon, this kind of device pushes (i.e. “sends”) the position of the device as well as other information like speed or altitude at regular intervals, to a determined server, that can store and instantly analyze the data. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

GPS navigation device and a mobile phone sit side-by-side in the same box, powered by the same battery. At regular intervals, the phone sends a text message via SMS or GPRS, containing the data from the GPS receiver. Newer GPS-integrated smartphones running GPS tracking software can turn the phone into a data pusher (or logger) device; as of 2009 open source and proprietary applications are available for common Java ME enabled phones, iPhoneAndroid, Windows Mobile, and Symbian. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Most 21st-century GPS trackers provide data “push” technology, enabling sophisticated GPS tracking in business environments, specifically organizations that employ a mobile workforce, such as a commercial fleet. Typical GPS tracking systems used in commercial fleet management have two core parts: location hardware (or tracking device) and tracking software. This combination is often referred to as an Automatic Vehicle Location system. The tracking device is most often hardwire installed in the vehicle; connected to the CAN-busIgnition system switch, battery. It allows collection of extra data, which later gets transferred to the GPS tracking server, where it is available for viewing, in most cases via a website accessed over the internet, where fleet activity can be viewed live or historically using digital maps and reports. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

GPS tracking systems used in commercial fleets are often configured to transmit location and telemetry input data at a set update rate or when an event (door open/close, auxiliary equipment on/off,  border cross) triggers the unit to transmit data. Live GPS Tracking used in commercial fleets, generally refers to systems which update regularly at 1 minute, 2 minute or 5 minute intervals, whilst the ignition status is on. Some tracking systems combine timed updates with heading change triggered updates. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Data Pullers are coming into more common usage in the form of devices containing a GPS receiver and a cell phone which, when sent a special SMS message reply to the message with their location. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Covert GPS Trackers Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gable

Covert GPS trackers contain the same electronics as regular GPS trackers but are constructed in such a way as to appear to be an everyday object. One use for covert GPS trackers is for power tool protection, these devices can be concealed within power tool boxes and traced if theft occurs. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

In the US, the use of GPS trackers by government authorities is limited by the 4th Amendment to the United States Constitution, so police, for example, usually require a search warrant in most circumstances. While police have placed GPS trackers in vehicles without warrant, this usage was questioned in court in early 2009.

Use by private citizens is regulated in some states, such as California, where California Penal Code Section 637.7 states:

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

(a) No person or entity in this state shall use an electronic tracking device to determine the location or movement of a person.
(b) This section shall not apply when the registered owner, lesser, or lessee of a vehicle has consented to the use of the electronic tracking device with respect to that vehicle. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

(c) This section shall not apply to the lawful use of an electronic tracking device by a law enforcement agency.
(d) As used in this section, “electronic tracking device” means any device attached to a vehicle or other movable thing that reveals its location or movement by transmission of electronic signals.
(e) A violation of this section is a misdemeanor. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

(f) A violation of this section by a person, business, firm, company, association, partnership, or corporation licensed under Division 3 (commencing with Section 5000) of the Business and Professions Code shall constitute grounds for revocation of the license issued to that person, business, firm, company, association, partnership, or corporation, pursuant to the provisions that provide for the revocation of the license as set forth in Division 3 (commencing with Section 5000) of the Business and Professions Code.

Note that 637.7 pertains to all electronic tracking devices, and does not differentiate between those that rely on GPS technology or not. As the laws catch up with the times, it is plausible that all 50 states will eventually enact laws similar to those of California.

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Other laws, like the common law invasion of privacy tort as well as state criminal Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

 wiretapping statutes (for example, the wiretapping statute of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, which is extremely restrictive) potentially cover the use of GPS tracking devices by private citizens without consent of the individual being so tracked. Privacy can also be a problem when people use the devices to track the activities of a loved one.[14] GPS tracking devices have also been put on religious statues in order to track the whereabouts of the statue if stolen. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

In 2009, debate ensued about a Georgia proposal to outlaw hidden GPS tracking, with an exception for law enforcement officers but not for private investigators. See Georgia HB 16 – Electronic tracking device; location of person without consent (2009).

Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

United Kingdom law Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

The law in the UK has not specifically addressed the use of GPS Trackers, but several laws may affect the use of this technology as a surveillance tool.

Data Protection Act 1998 Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

It is quite clear that if client instructions (written or digitally transmitted) that identify a person and a vehicle are combined with a tracker, the information gathered by the tracker becomes personal data as defined by the Data Protection Act 1998. The document “What is personal data? – Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

A quick reference guide” published by the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) makes clear that data identifying a living individual is personal data. If a living individual can be identified from the data, with or without additional information that may become available, is personal data.

An individual is identified if distinguished from other members of a group. In most cases an individual’s name together with some other information will be sufficient to identify them; but a person can be identified even if their name is not known. Start by looking at the means available to identify an individual and the extent to which such means are readily available to you.

Does the data ‘relate to’ the identifiable living individual, whether in personal or Hidden GPS tracker life, business or profession?

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Hidden camera Internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Relates to’ means: Data which identifies an individual, even without an associated name, may be personal data which is processed to learn or record something about that individual, or the processing of information that affects the individual. Therefore, data may ‘relate to’ an individual in several different ways.

Is the data ‘obviously about’ a particular individual? Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

Data ‘obviously about’ an individual will include his medical history, criminal record, record of his work, or his achievements in a sporting activity. Data that is not ‘obviously about’ a particular individual may include information about his activities. Data such as personal bank statements or itemized telephone bills will be personal data about the individual operating Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

 the account or contracting for telephone services. Where data is not ‘obviously about’ an identifiable individual it may be helpful to consider whether the data is being processed, or could easily be processed, to learn, record or decide something about an identifiable individual. Information may be personal data where the aim, or an incidental consequence, of the processing, is that you learn or record something about an identifiable individual, or the processing could affect an identifiable individual. Hidden camera internet Miami Beach Coral Gables

  • fetime than battery powered units. This gives them the advantage to report their position and status much more often than battery units which need to conserve their energy to extend their life. Some wireless solar powered units, such as the Rail Ridercan report more than 20,000 times per ye

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